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ftkfld'dl HUW 8 Ulf P 53" ^HfeuraOTfe II 

ycr fe»r^t OFfrxf fef drfo ufo edn?> tirtii ufo ufo wuft fegv 1 oft 
urayftr H'ddd oth frit 11 H'ddd oth frit urayftr ufo ufo hu 1 tort u Hzftw 
f%% fet Htwt ufo e^brt ^zr w^ ii ^tr ud>r d^fe oft tot hUt ufo ufo 
(VK forat ii hit fewt Qstaif urayfrr ufo edTT?> fet ii ^ ii ^w uw At 
wzw urayt ufo uiw 11 »rfaT»r?> *%$& offew ura- ftr»r?> y€f y a 1 fear n 

sfo»F UTd" tUTW 1 ?? WTd 7 fefw Ufa dB?> IT^W WU 1 II ufA % Uffe»f tW 

wh 1 »ry nnu uranfe tru 1 11 »fora Hdfe ^§ urfw >»ry<VHl tt ot£ wt ?> 

tTffeW II ^TOT U»f At grW UTdK^ Ufa UrfW II P II Ufa Hfe H§ At 
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II H'dd3 f%fe tfdT HUet frrf?) £teo{# (VK HHTfWf II Hf HslfaQ tT?JH TH?) 1 ' E 1 

urayftr frw h?> frrfe w ^fw 11 ufo h? tT?r frrfo ordH Hftmf ^§ 

ITffevM 1 ITd^ »f&5T II Ufa Hfe Hfe At ^W Ufa tT?> frffe tfe HU^t II 3 II 
ufo IT§" At wxw ufo ^TT Pt: 



3?> sun yd'fdiw 1 At stfi^ uft wwu q?> &ms\ tftf ii h? h?^ fafo urfw 

At 3tf%^ A^ 1 Ufa Uf 7TO W tftf II Ufa »Tfe fi-ffo»F HdlrlkcS At Utf^ 
H HftT fed'il 1st tftf II P II A IfoU WS A^ 1 Ufa Uf TTO H Hfc 3fc fU 

wdi'ylm 1 tftf ii uf ^fu ?> Hoff fa?> £u At uteH A >>fefo fauu ufo W&W 
tftf ii ufo siw Au 1 Htre funn^ 1 ujf A$ Au 1 h?> tWf tftf 11 At Hfc 
nfo ww utt»r At atf^ - nit fi-ffo»r Hfo ^'ylw 1 tftf 11 3 11 ^tt At 
utf^ ^tt At fwfw 1 uf ng tefe»fu hu ^tt tftf 11 At Hfc sfo Oy 

ftltK oT At 3tf%^ Uft Utft U^ UHTUT tftf II Hfddjd f%H<r Afe At 3tf^ 
UfU A^ offt UWt tftf II Zjfo (TH Ufe»F offo UrfW At #1^ rf?> (TO^ 
HUfe HH 1 ^ tftf II 8 II 3 II Ptf II €? II Ulf^t H 1 ^ HUW 8 II Utft At Utf^ 

#tft At fwfu»r ufo U3" A^ 1 utft tft§ 11 ufo »ru oro Surfed At 3tf%^ 
ufo »pu utut utft tftf ii uft »ru H3" uj^ ture 1 At aifW »ru uhW tuft 
tftf ii nit hto ?> f^^t At arf^ »ru Hfddjd nuft tftf 11 
<\ ii »fu tiuTH fvrfe^ 1 At uff%^ uft »rfV ut -su tuft tftf 11 feo^ ggr 
^di'fyti 1 At uff^ fefe ?>uT?j feuftr #ur Suft tftf 11 »fu tms firfs^ 1 At 

Urf%^ Ufa U 1 ?? £t H^ HUft tftf II 3UTH 1 (TK ttfW ff At 3tf^ Ufa ofH 1 

Hurftr ufo traft tftf ii p ii ufo »ru ^urfe owf^ 1 At ulf^e 1 ufo ^uth 1 ^u 
Hfo utt tftf ii »fu nfe nfe ^ddti 1 At urf%^ ut% uftmr ?kjt ett tftf 11 
ufo >feft wfo »rtu ff At atfe 1 ufo »rfu ufu»r ^uutt tftf 11 ufo »r3H 
a^y UHrftw At if^ ufe %t »rtu ueut tftf 11 3 11 nit >feft ^tr uf^ 
ff At utf^r ufe »rtu ^w^ fef ^h tftf ii ufo »fefe (TK fccr^ f At 
utf^ uju Hwt uit uf uph tftf ii »ru H^fe u^fe^ 1 At utf^ ufe ^uth 
ffiT ^tr wh °iP8 



Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the most sacred Book of the Sikhs. It was compiled by the 
fifth Guru, Guru Arjan, in 1604, in Amritsar. A voluminous text of fourteen hundred 
and thirty pages, it includes the compositions of the first five Gurus, Guru Nanak, Guru 
Angad, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan himself. A few hymns of the 
ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur were also included later by the tenth Guru, Guru 
Gobind Singh. Besides these compositions of the Sikh Gurus, Guru Arjan had added the 
compositions of the Muslim saint, Baba Farid, and of a number of Hindu saints of the 
Bhakti movement. Apart from the initial composition, Japuji of the first Guru, Guru 
Nanak, all other hymns are set to one or the other thirty-one classical ragas. 

The phonetic transcription of the language of Guru Granth has shown that there are 
numerous variations in orthographic notations. A large number of words have two 
spellings, some three or even more. It is due primarily to the fact that the language of 
this religious discourse of the sixteenth century has a number of interacting linguistic 
registers. To begin with is the register of Western Punjabi where at the outset we have 
>5ffe JTO" Hdl'fe Fra" || f 1 # Fra" (¥?>or UFft # FR" ll After Guru Nanak, the Gurus whose 

compositions appear in the Granth stayed in and around Amritsar, hence the influence 
of the Majhi dialect. The frequent variation between [w] and [b] refers to Doaba and 
Malwa. The alternation from [n] to [n] is also very common. It is interesting to note that 
in some compositions, pages, [b] is more frequent than [w], and [n] than [n]. Is it due to 
the dialect of the scribe? Then there is the overwhelming language of the religious 
discourse of the period, the Sadh Bhasa. The differences in spelling may occasionally be 
due to the reference to one linguistic register or the other. The extremely frequent 
variations in short and long or high and low vowels are most probably due to the meters 
of the ragas, the musical compositions. All these inferences require extremely 
meticulous researches of the various interacting levels of linguistic registers. Professor 
Sahib Singh is the only scholar who made a serious attempt at deciphering these 
intricacies but he worked mostly on the additional short vowels, [u] and [i], which have 
no phonetic value. According to Professor Sahib Singh, these vowels refer to 
grammatical functions of number, gender and case. As far as other variations are 
concerned, there is hardly any thing of serious note. The absolutely correct reading of 


Guru Granth is the most sacred task in Sikh theology. It is but natural that this linguistic 
aspect of the most holy Book of the Sikhs needs a very diligent and very urgent 
attention. These researches will obviously take a very long time and hard work by 
eminent musicologists and linguists. For the time being, what is required is to follow 
these variations in Gurmukhi orthography. The readers must articulate these phonetic 
realisations as they are presented graphically in the sacred text. The first right step in 
this direction is to read the text, word by word, and very slowly. The modern practice of 
recitation and very fast reading, especially in Akhand Path, obliterates all these 
distinctions when these variations occur within the same utterance or within the same 
composition. We must remember that in this religious discourse we are dealing with the 
language of the sixteenth century. The phonetic patterns of modern Punjabi cannot be 
imposed on its linguistic register... The text that is used for this transcription is the 
version duly approved, printed and published by the SGPC, Shiromani Gurdwara 
Parbandhak Committee. 

Harjeet Singh Gill 
Professor Emeritus 
Jawaharlal Nehru University 
New Delhi. 


The orthographic variations in Guru Granth may be presented as follows : 

€>H arayftf oft§ vm^ II H U PUO [akara] 

fodd'd »Tora Wflr P<SddJ<S H33J?* §of II HU PUO [akar] 

inrMkwr Awkwr Awip inrgun srgun eyk ] eykih eyk bKwnno nwnk 
eyk Anyk ] 1 ] pauVI ] EAM gurmuiK klE Akwrw ] eykih sUiq 
provnhwrw m 5 250 

arayftf ftnft »ra T ftj»r fetf sfw sjQhw hfrj ii h 3 tf o [aradia] 

<TO5T ufe ?PH ftTSt »rg T ftl»F W?fe ufe fe? 3^ II H3 tf O [aradia] 

nwnk hir nwmu ijnl AwrwiDAw Anidnu hir ilv qwr ] mwieAw 
bMdl Ksm kl iqn AgY kmwvY kwr ] pUrY pUrw kir CoifAw hukim 
svwrxhwr ] gur prswdl ijnl buiJAw iqin pwieAw moK duAwru ] 
mnmuK hukmu n jwxnl iqn mwry jm jMdwru ] gurmuiK ijnl 
ArwiDAw iqnl qirAw Baujlu sMswru m 3 90 

3J3" i^wt H^fe TWift II H 3 Wf [salahl] 

fef cffo #bT fef H'rt'Jl II H 3 «Wf [salahl] 

ikau kir vyKw ikau swlwhl ] gur prswdl sbid slwhl ] qyry 
Bwxy ivic AMimRqu vsY qUM BwxY AMimRqu pIAwvixAw ] 7 ] 
AMimRq sbdu AMimRq hir bwxl ] siqguir syivAY irdY smwxl ] 
nwnk AMimRq nwmu sdw suKdwqw pi AMimRqu sB BuK lih jwvixAw 
1 8 1 m 3 119 


Hfc ft^Hfo ^H H\J Hfe II wfe ^fTM W&\ H¥ dT^ II H 3 °[Urz [sac] [sac] 
fas fy <5Ut fes fPfe TJiut fes % ?> P^ 1 II H8 <*£;> [nahl] [nahl] 
gUK ftTW?ft oT ?>ut faOTT ll H V| pp3 [nahl] 

SRJH ftlW?ft ot (TOt VW |l H Vj PP3 [nahl] 

bRhm igAwnl eyk aUpir Aws ] bRhm igAwnl kw nhl ibnws ] bRhm 
igAwnl kY grlbl smwhw ] bRhm igAwnl praupkwr aumwhw ] bRhm 
igAwnl kY nwhl DMDw ] bRhm igAwnl ly Dwvqu bMDw ] m 5 273 

SRJH fawft off H^ »R*H II H VI PP3 [ades] 

»P^H feH »P^H II H ^ P [ades] 

fe Hd£'«1 ?&$ ?TOoT VT3 »W II H vj tlO [adar] 

3t SB?^ W$V[ WF3 H3ft »ntM Wt yltJ'dlm Hrf II H Vj tlO [adar] 

sMq srxwel lBxy nwnk pRwx ADwr ] 1 ] CMqu ] crn kml isau 
pRIiq rliq sMqn min Awvey jlau ] duqIAw Bwau ibprliq Anliq 
dwsw nh Bwvey jlau ] dwsw nh Bwvey ibnu drswvey iek iKnu 
DIrju ikau krY ] nwm ibhUnw qnu mnu hlnw jl ibnu mCulI ijau 
rarY ] imlu myry ipAwry pRwn ADwry gux swDsMig imil gwvey ] 
nwnk ky suAwml Dwir AnugRhu min qin AMik smwvey ] 1 ] fKxw 
] sohMdVo hB Twie koie n idsY fUjVo ] Kul@Vy kpwt nwnk 
siqgur Bytqy ] 1 ] CMqu ] qyry ben AnUp Apwr sMqn AwDwr 
bwxl blcwrlAY jlau ] m 5 80 

3J3 - H^ 1 ^ ?> vrefrtf ?F 3# (7 ffe II H3 t8 [na] [na] [na] 
M56T oPHfe H^ Hd'dlfe W fm m ?> W$ II H 3 P8VJ [na] [na] 


fm oT HUW ?> y^st <V hW m W II H 3 3^ [na] [na] 

uf uf orant fraj fe^t jt tr?> m jvfe ii 

>M JVH 7) %3Z\ HF S^ot HHoPfo II H 3 3P [na] [na] 

mfw mrf ?> ^ era - ?r fofs ut oph ii h ^ po [na] [na] 

UW sm\ UWfe dlf ?>f Od^'d 7i W3 II H 3 Ptf [na] [na] 

The rhythmic movement from [na] to [na], [ta] to [ta] is highly complex and yet the 
reader has no choice. Phonologically, there is no short vowel in the final position but the 
musical note requires this opposition to be realised properly. 

STUH fawft t Uffe H5 1 »ffc II H U pp3 [anad] 

Htf HUH »1TO fWH II H U p=\o [anad] 

»17)E fa^H HH 3*^ 3g ^t H U^ Hrf II H U =\oo [anad] 

W5E HtT §^ ufe M5oT HfiH fo^'dM H£W ntd 7 II H U po8 [anad] 

ufe fnf nt 3T Hf ^ >% ii ufe frrf nt s 0>dtJM ute ii h u P3t: [ta] [ta] 

ftTHfc trfe WW7T H^H H^fw II H U ^Ot: [apna] 
WRIST jv§ nfiflf ^Rret || h y =\ot: [apna] 

WI& »ry f »rflr UsJ'ifd ll H U ^Ot: [apna] 

idRsit Dwir Apnw dwsu svwirAw ] Gt Gt AMqir pwrbRhmu 
nmskwirAw ] ieksu ivxu horu dUjw nwhl bwbw nwnk ieh miq 
swrl jlau ] 4 ] 39 ] 46 ] m 5 108 


Awpxw nwau Awip jpwel ] gur boihQu pwieAw ikrpw qy nwnk 
Duir sMjogw jlau ] 4 ] 41 ] 48 ] mwJ mhlw 5 ] soel krxw ij 
Awip krwey ] ijQY rKY sw B1I jwey ] soel isAwxw so piqvMqw 
hukmu lgY ijsu mITw jlau ] 1 ] sB proel iekqu DwgY ] ijsu 
lwie ley so crxl lwgY ] aU0~D kvlu ijsu hoie pRgwsw iqin 
srb inrMjnu fITw jlau ] 2 ] qyrl mihmw qUMhY jwxih ] Apxw 
Awpu qUM Awip pCwxih ] hau bilhwrl sMqn qyry ijin kwmu 
k®oDu loBu pITw jlau ] m 5 108 

H 3§ dfl£ »Hj£ fe?T f ft+fo§fa II H U t:^ [apne] 
»W^ 5^fe H yfwfe»f II H U =\op [apune] 

»Ol£ ora3¥ WH W^fa WH 3g TWfttW tftf II H U ^CQ [apne] 

ApunY Twkuir jo pihrwieAw ] bhuir n lyKw puiC bulwieAw ] 
iqsu syvk kY nwnk kurbwxl so gihr gBIrw gauhru jlau ] m 5 

qUM inrguxu srguxu suKdwqw ] qUM inrbwxu rsIAw rMig rwqw ] 
Apxy krqb Awpy jwxih Awpy quDu smwlIAY jlau ] 3 ] qUM 
Twkuru syvku Puin Awpy ] qUM gupqu prgtu pRB Awpy ] m 5 

3M fKfe >W<V t(HH ftmr^f ll H JJ °O0 [apuna] 
^H »Ol£ oft ^tf^U 1 ^ II H U =\pp [apne] 

m >xy£ hh ^ efenra ii y^5 ret ^or ura h sra?> orfc dft£ »w£ ?w 11 h u ^Pt: 

[apune] [apne] 

§^ §^ »py7j ?JUt oPH II H U °ltzp [apan] 

ww un^ »p£r yfe wtf h £ h mr wfe§ wjtf Hfwf n h u pgo 
[apuna] [apna] 


ijin guir mo kau dlnw jlau ] Awpunw dwsrw Awpy muil llau 
] 6 ] Awpy lwieE Apnw ipAwru ] sdw sdw iqsu gur kau krl 
nmskwru ] 7 ] kil klys BY BRm duK lwQw ] khu nwnk myrw guru 
smrwQw ] 8 ] 9 ] m 5 24 


Hfc huh m f$ arfw 33 wm h^ nfk fkfe an* ii h u t«\ [sukh] 
h^h jw »r£u w& flwrt ufe 33?> h?^ «fefe Hte3 ii h y t«\ [sukh] 

srbso sUK Awnud Gn ipAwry hir rqnu mn AMqir slvqy ] ieku 
iqlu nhl ivsrY pRwn AwDwrw jip jip nwnk jlvqy ] 3 ] fKxw ] 
jo qau klny Awpxy iqnw kUM imilEih ] Awpy hi Awip moihEhu 
jsu nwnk Awip suixEih ] 1 ] CMqu ] pRym Tgaurl pwie rlJwie 
goibMd mnu moihAw jlau ] sMqn kY prswid AgwiD kMTy lig 
soihAw jlau ] hir kMiT lig soihAw doK siB joihAw Bgiq IK'x 
kir vis Bey ] min srb suK vuTy goivd quTy jnm mrxw siB imit 
gey ] m 5 81 

5VH Ufe flJH W Hfddld fm TW$* II H 3 £t [upje] 

hw ut 3 huh fun ufe irfenr m Hfe H3 ft [upje] 

nwmu hir aupjY jw siqguru imlY suBwey ] mnu qnu ArpI Awpu 
gvwel clw siqgur Bwey ] sd 

bilhwrl gur Apuny ivthu ij hir syql icqu lwey ] 7 ] so 
bRwhmxu bRhmu jo ibMdy hir syql rMig rwqw ] pRBu inkit vsY 
sBnw Gt AMqir gurmuiK ivrlY jwqw ] nwnk nwmu imlY vifAwel 
gur kY sbid pCwqw ] 8 ] 5 ] 22 ] isrlrwgu mhlw 3 ] shjY no 


sB locdl ibnu gur pwieAw n jwie ] piV piV pMifq joqkl Qky 
ByKI Brim Bulwey ] gur Byty shju pwieAw Awpxl ikrpw kry 
rjwie ] 1 ] Bwel ry gur ibnu shju n hoie ] sbdY hi qy shju 
aUpjY hir pwieAw scu soie ] 1 ] rhwau ] shjy gwivAw Qwie 
pvY ibnu shjY kQnl bwid ] shjy hi Bgiq aUpjY shij ipAwir 
bYrwig ] shjY hi qy suK swiq hoie ibnu shjY jlvxu bwid 
12] m 3 68 


t fe to *toot urft fk to ii h y Ptu [bi] [bi] 
tf z\ to fiw urft ^t to ii h *\ *\ [bi] [bi] 

Apparently the enunciation of Japuji is repeated in Sukhmani with a change from long 
[I] to short [i], the difference could be due to the rhythm of the new composition : 

»rfe to twfc to ii t ^t to ?^of unt ^t to 11 ^ 11 

Hfe ii nrfe to twfc to ii fr fk to <w>cr urft fk to ii «\ ii wrotret n e^ Hfe Hfe 

UdHrtd'd II yfF Hfe Hfe tf^'d II 
^fe f^ f^ 1 offe 3l£ v>F& fe tJM£d'd II H *\ iS [bi] 
owf HHTIftt H'feHl fofw ?t JV^ i=Ffe II H 3 t8 [bi] 
Hfddld ftf%>tf ufe Hfc ^ fiff ft % IJ33T II H 3 it [sevie] 

to Hirii £#^ arayftf ^h Hfc »rfe 11 H3 it [sevie] 


sew swihbu syvIAY gurmuiK vsY min Awie ] sdw rMig rwqy sc 
isau ApunI ikrpw kry imlwie ] 7 ] Awpy kry krwey Awpy ieknw 
suiqAw dyie jgwie ] Awpy myil imlwiedw nwnk sbid smwie 
] 8 ] 7 ] 24 ] isrlrwgu mhlw 3 ] siqguir syivAY mnu inrmlw 
Bey pivqu srlr ] min Awnudu sdw suKu pwieAw ByitAw gihr 
gMBIru ] scl sMgiq bYsxw sic nwim mnu DIr ] 1 ] mn ry 
siqguru syiv insMgu ] siqguru syivAY hir min vsY lgY n mYlu 
pqMgu ] 1 ] m 3 6 9 

Hfe>^ frw vffa Hfe (VH II H ^ P [sunie] 

W*£\W HSlw Hfc 3vflw W§ II H °[ 3 [sunie] 

gwvIAY suxIAY min rKIAY Bwau ] duKu prhir suKu Gir 1Y jwie 
] gurmuiK nwdM gurmuiK vydM gurmuiK rihAw smwel ] guru 
elsru guru gorKu brmw guru pwrbql mwel ] m 1 2 

suixAY isD plr suir nwQ ] suixAY Driq Dvl Awkws ] suixAY 
dip loA pwqwl ] suixAY poih n skY kwlu ] nwnk Bgqw sdw 
ivgwsu ] suixAY dUK pwp kw nwsu ] 8 ] suixAY elsru brmw 
ieMdu ] suixAY muiK swlwhx mMdu ] suixAY jog jugiq qin Byd 
] suixAY swsq isimRiq vyd ] m 1 2 

Ufe ryHfd>^ tJtf 33T Uj3t || H vj *\tP [bisarie] 

?tfw fyH'fd^ Hf S# ffe II H *\ PP£ [bisarie] 

HPddJd tfe>tf fc^HW U»F W?fe JVH ^ft II H 3 €? [petie] 

ftJR ftfe ?5ftW tfl^ffi &&&> V&fit vpfe II H VI 3Tt [lagie] 

yfe Hferfew ft 3ET VSffi UK 3ET of!?5t ^raPH 7 II H ^ ^vjvj [mudaie] 

At m Ttt H y^ HH HVI^H 7 frB ftfe>»f for Ulfo ^rfl>^ II H 8 ^PO [sevie] 


uh nraon^t Wore wftiw?^ Hfe ajfe fHfow »ry m^fenr ll H 8 W [milie] 

(Vfi-T frrfow iffe IT^W (Vfi-T Hf?5>^ W Ufe ll H 3 P33 [milie] [manie] 

The normal reading in all such cases is with long [I]. Even the most professional 
granthis follow this rhythm, especially in Akhand Path. The diphthong [ie] follows the 
phonological pattern of the language of the sixteenth century. 


ftT Hfddld ft?fc ft fs3 Ufe ftnt fe? wfe II H 3 €u [ji] 

ft Ufe ufe oflt 3U¥ W^ fttS ?> ftfe»F rffe II H 3 £u [je] 

haumY krm kmwvdy jmfMfu lgY iqn Awie ] ij siqguru syvin sy 
aubry hir syql ilv lwie ] 1 ] mn ry gurmuiK nwmu iDAwie ] 
Duir pUrib krqY iliKAw iqnw gurmiq nwim smwie ] 1 ] rhwau ] 
ivxu siqgur prqliq n Awvel nwim n lwgo Bwau ] supnY suKu n 
pwvel duK mih svY smwie ] 2 ] jy hir hir klcY bhuqu locIAY 
ikrqu n myitAw jwie ] m 3 65 

ft ufe drfe fttfrefar fft f%sfk oraftj ?> wfe ll h u «\3y [si] 
ftM eiw $h 3H ft fefufe gd wwfe h h h =i3ii [se] 

ijMn@I cwiKAw pRym rsu ft iqRpiq rhy AwGwie ] Awpu iqAwig 
ibnql krih lyhu pRBU liV lwie ] jo hir kMiq imlwelAw is 
ivCuiV kqih n jwie ] pRB ivxu dUjw ko nhl nwnk hir srxwie ] 
AsU suKI vsMdIAw ijnw mieAw hir rwie ] 8 ] m 5 135 

m off frwuftr fft ^yun'ft 11 h u p£3 [si] 

m off faH^fa ft Htf^Tft II H ll p£3 [se] 


pRB kau ismrih sy DnvMqy ] pRB kau ismrih sy piqvMqy ] pRB 
kau ismrih sy jn prvwn ] pRB kau ismrih sy purK pRDwn ] pRB 
kau ismrih is bymuhqwjy ] pRB kau ismrih is srb ky rwjy ] 
m 5 263 

Phonologically there is no short vowel in the final position. However, for a correct 
enunciation, one has to follow this phonetic realisation in a large number of enunciative 
contexts : si/se, ji/je, ta/ta, na/na. 

M WffooT M WffccT oraftl ufe vjff fft 3y ^njftr flVffa ilttB 1 II H 8 <W [anik] [anik] 

3t »f3eT 33 Wf^oT vrsftr SU ftiMz WH3 fft otfe forfW t(3 d73H oT^S 1 II H 8 «W 
[anek] [anek] 

fHH3^ FPH ton y^5 fHHWH fef HOT ffclH ' dlm fftf II H V| tlO [bisaris] 

foff HOT ^H 1 ^ fcHtf (-Kit ^^tw dli^d vp?^ UH^ II H H to [besarie] 

qyry ben AnUp Apwr sMqn AwDwr bwxl blcwrlAY jlau ] ismrq 
sws igrws pUrn ibsuAws ikau mnhu ibswrlAY jlau ] ikau mnhu 
byswrlAY inmK nhl twrlAY guxvMq pRwn hmwry ] mn bWCq PI dyq 
hY suAwml jIA kl ibrQw swry ] m 5 8 

yf ^ftl Hfddld vpfw HSt* Hfo fH rt ' ^fett T ll H 3 TO [milawania] 

<TO5T TiM ^H Hft »Bfe 3M HWt ufe H?5^fe»T II H 3 TO [melawania] 

pUrY Bwig siqguru pwieAw sbdy myil imlwvixAw ] 5 ] qUM 
dieAwlu sdw suKdwqw ] qUM Awpy myilih gurmuiK jwqw ] qUM 
Awpy dyvih nwmu vfwel nwim rqy suKu pwvixAw ] 6 ] sdw sdw 
swey quDu swlwhl ] gurmuiK jwqw dUjw ko nwhl ] eyksu isau 
mnu rihAw smwey min mMinAY mnih imlwvixAw ] 7 ] gurmuiK 
hovY so swlwhy ] swey Twkur vyprvwhy ] nwnk nwmu vsY mn 
AMqir gur sbdl hir mylwvixAw ] m 3 122 

M56T oft tft^r offo foravr ^tR cVH II H vj «*33 [benatla] 


<TOcT oft tS^t y^ Uftj foOF offo 3^TTO 3*M\ II HU to [benatl] 

»ry fenrftr fe>3t ofdftr $u uf wfe wfe 11 h y <*3u [binti] 

ofdf fclM' H 1 ?? fenraTf II H II tftf [binatl] 


^Hd" ^ [(Wld^F Hf of£ t^cSO ' d II jrfH H^H fHHdH UUftl ?TOof SdH WTd" II <\ II yf^t 
II ^W W3* £^ !f H¥ off t^<W'd II ^§ §fe ?J WWZ\ ym&3 3d" ^d" II tWd HE 
rlkcVJ'd' II H y pyp [dewanhar] [denhar] 

h fef oft h »ry % »r0 11 gftr fwsy faf ?> fpy 11 h y ^op [ape] [ape] 

3d" 3^ f%fo nffK? ?Hf§t nffi^J ylw^fenr ll H 3 «Wf [pane] [pane] 

ffiW ffiW ot feftfey 3t£ II H y 3Pt [ke] 

3J3" t S^fc dt d^H oT d^fdT II H y <\3? [ke] 
ufe ct Bd7^ ftpdf wt II H y PP8 [ke] 

§h yfe t fy^frr fraj tflt 11 h y PP8 [ke] 

H?? ^ Hfddld fTTf fo? Wfe II H 3 it [mere] 

HTfenr Hd/ >Jt yfe dffrr nry- ^dfa ^&$ ||H3 £p [mere] 

dfo W5 fe ftWd; tfd" ^t II H 8 tf y [mere] 


Ufe Ufe ofgr flf nfc gi^ || H 9 tfu [mere] 

hir jn sMq imlhu myry Bwel ] myrw hir pRBu dshu mY BuK 
lgwel ] myrl srDw pUir jgjlvn dwqy imil hir drsin mnu BIjY 
jlau ] 1 ] imil sqsMig boll hir bwxl ] hir hir kQw myrY min 
Bwxl ] hir hir AMimRqu hir min BwvY imil siqgur AMimRqu 
pIjY jlau ] m 4 95 

WO ^tffrr ftwfew? yd 3J^ ddd'fd ll H 3 £t [pure] 

yt Trafe W^M frlH 5 1 >fe ?> U'd'^'d ll H 3 £t [pure] 

ibnu shjY sBu AMDu hY mwieAw mohu gubwru ] shjy hi soJI pel 
scY sbid Apwir ] Awpy bKis imlwieAnu pUry gur krqwir ] 8 ] 
shjy Aidstu pCwxIAY inrBau joiq inrMkwru ] sBnw jIAw kw 
ieku dwqw joql joiq imlwvxhwru ] pUrY sbid slwhIAY ijs dw 
AMqu n pwrwvwru ] m 3 6 8 

HU# arf^nr Wfs yf fS5 HU# oTHctf Wfe ll H 3 &z [sehje] [sehje] 

Bwel ry gur ibnu shju n hoie ] sbdY hi qy shju aUpjY hir 
pwieAw scu soie ] 1 ] rhwau ] shjy gwivAw Qwie pvY ibnu 
shjY kQnl bwid ] shjy hi Bgiq aUpjY shij ipAwir bYrwig ] 
shjY hi qy suK swiq hoie ibnu shjY jlvxu bwid ] 2 ] m 3 

yfeH east H 753t ftt oft fcdTW Hfe II H U ^33 [lage] 
t^TO HU 1 ^ ^^fFTfettuf^HfellHy «\38 [lage] 

fa?> naf* fraj tjtftw fet w^ytr £ aret tnfe ii hh£ cvy ftiw^l^ 

HH^ H% HHrfe II H 3 €? [sabde] [sabde] 

H# H^fe ufe §UH H^ HB 1 ;v§ II H 3 £tf [sace] [sace] 


fevjfe nwnfe gfr foe nfefo §w?> 3 »ra fot n h u 3«w [rahe] 

yt H^fe H3" H?t U^t ufo ?W stf mvfe ll H 3 £tf [rahe] 

m »w£ faf auftr m^fe ii h vj pt:£ [apne] 
yfe" wait flft of^t efe II H vj pt:£ [apne] 
H'VJHfdl H^ vraH 1 ^ II H Vj pp=\ [jane] 
mf H^ H^ g^t II H vj pp=\ [jane] 


H WTfewF H BOTt WfHf H djf okH'd II H «\ £3 [jo] [so] [su] 
flfeHH^H <^2l'dl' II flfeHH^H W?fe HW II H V) 33t [jo] [so] [su] 

h w ufo <th wM m tit # wet w§Hfe ^ g^£ 11 [so] [jo] 

H W ufo <7H WM m tit tJ Hft oft feH?T H¥ ftT dl^ II H VI tztf [so] [ju] 

vrait ajvfw hu^ it >nt 11 h vj ptfvj [gupal] 

3RTW e'tied' efa efe»FW II H vj ptfvj [gopal] 

H^ Hd'dlfe fF Hfddjd At dJ3" oT wffe H>rel>tf II dJ3" HW ti^F 3 1 Hff d^t WU 1 ?W HH^ 
II ?TOoT oHHfe (VU ftiwt fFUfeotdJ^H^II^IIHTVT^^dJH^tftf WRI^ ?^fe Hiwt || 

nfftjfcfrr ^far d^nt tftf dra irae ?£\w3 11 dra hw ^te 1 ^ ufti h^ fe^ feftr ftrag fawt 

II H 1 ETfi Hd'dlfe HE 1 3fol 3^ H 1 ^ JVfK ftwt II Wj£ dj^ ft+fo ^M wffK? dRllw efw 

>ffo fc^t ii ?^ot omfe ufo ^ vrfenr hst$ etf f%H^ 11 p ii oPHfe fcra^r ^wt tft§ 


Hrfenr Hfu fimru ii fst ffe waft tflf ffe yst ffe»ru 11 f?; fc^ ajUHfe h^ hw ash 

?) U'U II 31U HW fit Hfe HWt f%W <jf& W$ II «Tfe oT ?PH fet ^TT 1 ^ W oft HfaPU II 
M56T oFHfe HUfft HWSt frIH WW (VH WFU II 3 II fHW HU vfe^ rftf 3g fa?> wt feH^ 

ii h M ?5te ?> »pf tflfgf ws V5t ii vj^ % <? ^t huTw <pf fSG fviu fef jw 
vre^ ii aju »r# druf feM ft aju ^t fftf fnt fef ftftrelw ii wvf ftfe ws" Htre'H 1 
wflr fi-rfw urfu »r£ h ?toot cmfe He 1 yo'dife <^ ftiu hu ^ h>£ 11 a 11 3 11 aif^t 

HUW 3 II of'Hfe ufe Ufa ijtft rflf ufe oT HUfft H^S" II H?> HUfc Hfe slwf rftf ffw 
HUfft HH 1 ^ II ffw HUfft HH^ oPHfe ^f vp£ 3JUH3t UdJ W5" II feu HUfa ffe 3Hfe 

gfe»r 3tw 3^t vnvr oth^ ii ajuyftf 33Tfe fe huh gfe fvjft fe?> garat % ?> h^ ii 
?^ot omfe fiiufe fviwut feuu »ru 3i^ ii *\ ii omfe feu irfewr rflf aju t ^fe 
fewu ii ffe Hfe W3\ ftlf wsfe ffe vnu ii nfefe ffe vnu ftraffi fvronu wfe tw 

fe^U II Mfefe HUW feu U't oPHfe 31UH3t ^lu^ II Mfftj? <7H vft»F feft g^t Hfw Iffe 
fe^t II ?TOoT Hfe feftt Hd'dlfe 3JU oT Ufe WVPU II H VI P88-38VJ 
[suhagan] [sohagan] [suhagan] [sohagan] 

Ufe VJf HU HH3W Ufe W&J W§ H ^H II H 8 Pt [babula] 

Ufe WH UT-f HU HliW feu fkfe VT?^ %W ^vM II H 8 Pt: [babola] 

Ufe Hfe H^ ftt WUW Ufe H?j fHfe HV HUUt II £feat Ufe rrfU HUWt fefe H'ddd 
viut HU^t II H 8 Pt [babula] [suhadl] [sohadl] 

Ufe Hfe Hfe HU W^W Ufe W5 fkfe t% HU^t II H 8 Pt [babola] [so/uhadl] 

The two enunciations are the same except for the two words, «■««■ / «■««■ [babula] 

[babola] and yotfl / HUUt [suhadl] [so/uhadl] . . . After [suhadl] and [sohadl], the scribe 

probably could not make up his mind and put both [u] and [o] on the same letter, 
HUet . The same is true of several other words, HUE 1 , f»f^, Hrt'd 1 , djfVw, ^VTH, ^VfW, 

^o'dife, woe el, 3fe where the scribe seems to hesitate between [u] and [o]. As far as 

the reader is concerned, he just has to pronounce one vowel or the other. He cannot 
simultaneously articulate both. 



#>rg u»f Ht wzw aray£ ufe yiw 11 wftiw?? voto offenr ara ftwre u€f gwfenr 

II gfe»F 3J^ ftlW?> vtffo 1 fHftfw ufe dB?> i^W WIF II U§H U3T 3Tfe»F tW W »Ty 

ywu iraHfe tnr 11 mora yufe ^f irfenr wfwHt ?r o^ Ht ?^ fpfw 11 #w unr h3 
gw aray£ ufe irfenr 11 p ii ufe Hfe h^ h^ sw ufe h?^ fnfo h% guet 11 iko?§ 
ufe frfir Hdwt f%fo H'dd3 t^t Huut ii H'ddS fefo trat Huet fafc ikodl ?w hh^wf II 
Hf HsjCttG frw fev ^ arayftr ftw h?> fafe uw ^fwr 11 ufe fe h?f fnfo orw 
Hfw ^f irfw yw yme\ 11 ufe Hfe Hfe tit hw ufe h?^ fnfo h% HUi?t ii 3 ii ufe 

yf H^ HW ufe t^I Pt: [babula] [babola] [babula] [suhadl] [sohadl] 

[sohadl] [babola] [so/uhadl] [babula] 

ufe Hfe Hfe H^ 3W Ufe W5 M& H% HTOt II H 8 Pt: [so/uhadl] 

W HU5 7 HUH Htf fHH HtfH tu^U II H U =\3H 


f^ fe?> unr t»r$ f^ Hfa ^fw i^fenr 11 h «\ ph [do/uale] 

FFH 1 st^ orak HWU 1 y3 3ra ^ 3Tfe VSt II H 3 £p [jo/ulaha] 

y^l3 3^ »FUftl 3|fw <W5oT jfe H3^ II H U PU8 [go/ubid] 

l^t dl'^cSd'd 3RPW II H U 3t3 [go/upal] 

H'UHPdl fwfe 3Hftr 3P4W II H U ^tf O 


§g ujfo ujfo uf faf u?j riO'dlfe 

§H JVfe yg H^ §H # fi£^ wfw II H 8 303 [do/uhagan] 

rret Hd'dlfe ?TOoT H 3^t ddd'fd ut II H H 800 [so/uhagan] 

Hf HTftm HPddjy t^fr^^ftf^ftfHtHF feret II H 8 30P [lo/ukal] 

t tfl»T f?>HH WH fftl <7Ut II ofHfe 330 [to/uhe] 


^tj im HrPW oPftT ?> fet 31?> II ufe ofldd6 WW (V>dtJM ^ q?> II H U 3tft: 

[gano/u] [tano/u] 

ufe f>^ <*>d'fe£ MW HTsgf y^ 1 II H U 8U8 [manortho/u] 
H^fe ijfenr ftW H^TF ll HU 3t:3 [so/uhela] 


arayftr 33Tfe ufe ?tfH HHTg- || h 3 ^O [smae] 
3JU ira? HW H?^ }ffa H>fftr II H 3 ^O [smahe] 
3J3 - H^fc TWt f# ufe M II H 3 ^O [smawe] 

w^m wfaiwft wft if$ ii h 3 <\£o [pae] 
33" are nt^or ofb-rfe ?Kr irftr ii h 3 ^o [pahe] 
?W »(ftfg H^t Fl?> U># II H ^ =ptf [pawe] 


fr 3g gi^ftr 3 1 otdfe fafH 1 fiM ?re ^h^Hj ii fr 3g gif ^ *J3lu o?^ y^r ^tr 

ofU^ftr II H «\ <\8U [paweh] [pawe] 

W 3^ ^fTT offafa d 1 ^ feu H?> oflt i^H 7 II H «\ <WH [kljeh] [klje] 

3J^ 3P# Wfe fcfe tTOft II H U ^Otf [gawe] 


wfe 313 W^fu Tft ft^HW HU^ JVfK HH 1 ^ II H 3 £tf [gaweh] 

OTSt W# 3 1 HUW IP# II H 3 33^ [pawe] 

fa?> ufe ^Tfe oRF fefe iT^ftr II H U PU8 [paweh] 

H foff fent H3" >pfa HHW ll H 3 «Wtf [wisre] 

f r^Hdfd 3fe ut Hfe fpf II H 3 «Wtf [wisreh] 

jfe wfc flO ufe (Vf II H U «\t3 [jape] 

W?fe?> tWftj ufe H^RT^t II H 3 «*£? [japeh] 

faff HW traj etflWF fet HffHtF ff 3ist trfe ll H 3 £p [phire] 

wf&W f$ ftw fegftj HH^ 7> ?# H^fe ll H 3 £p [phireh] 


Wf tlQd'Hl fttW wfU WIS 1 ** II H 3 TO [corasl] 

Wf -dQd'Hld 33Ht* fe3 fa?> 3M t£ iflt II H 3 3t [coraslh] 

i/'i e/'e echo of the final syllable, tone tail, the move from one syllable to two 
syllables ... 

Ufe ^SH ora^t £ grfk t II H 8 ^iU [de] one syllable 

^^ Ufe q^ tnfc £fe cffo #3T fmw II H 8 &l [de'e] two syllables 


uft <^h ^irju tar frrf A wfir sfews ufe £fr II H 8 ^vj [dehe] 

H'UHPdl VRH ^fe at ^ II H vj PP^ [kare] two syllables 

<TOcT frl?> Uf wfU cftfe II H VI PP3 [kare'e] three syllables 

<TOcT ^ oft 33Tfe oft^T II H V| ppo [kareh] 

wfcof #3T fefw ot oft II H V) pptf [kare] 

f ^fe 33Tfe ofgftj fe?> ^3t ufefflfttHF tlffe II H 3 38 [kareh] 

»rfe are£ shu" ii twfc ura£ wra ii Hfcara£ wra ii gt ura^^ wra ii h vj p^p 
[gur'e] [gur'e] [satgur'e] [gurdev'e] 

^UTJU^ uftr &fe fc^ II H vj =\t:3 [le'e] 

?TOof fa^H 1 otfe ?> tfe II H vj =\t:vi [he'e] 

375^ 3*^ £ftf HUt fETT q?> foff lflg£ II [tir'e] 

dl^d ?TC ?feWH SW HU¥ d]^ 33yg# || H V| P8P [parpur'e] 

dra" oT 3B?> tfl»f of Hfol II H 8 ^PP [jT'T] transcribed as /'ji/ , echo of the last syllable 

§$T fau^t §H ^H ot ^3J II H vj ^tft: [bikh'T] 

uft vjrfem^T ^^c) i dn«1 At fff^ fe? t T^T Hfo UH tftf II H8 «U>3 [wadpagl'I] 

H^T Vffe»ra ft^H f»f H3W HU¥ HH^ £oT §tt II H vj pop [pua] 

3 1 f Hftr H§ Ufe ttffw II H vj <\?£ [sou] 


331Sfi dft 3^ ufe H?> ^ % yf forayw II H U POP [hohu] 
Consonant cluster with [ r ] 

m 3?> nraO farw iralfe 11 h y PP8 [pant] 

Hfi Hftr ytfe fcSdrlcS S3H II H U PP8 [prlt] 

drfe fcrair ^^ ire? win 11 h y =103 [kirpa] 

ufe tfl§ fgfyr ora? 3Jf tift? tffi fiW ufe q?> yt tfl§ II H 8 tf 8 [kripa] 

foray 1 foftr foray 1 ?? fwif 11 h y «\t3 [kh-pai] 

h^ fgww ufenra atfWe II H y «\t3 [kripal] 

oraH rraH fiH S3 yFF II H y «Vf tf [karam] 

H?> W gfH atf^e WW II H y *\tP [kram] 

H3TW fgfW Hftr §3H fc7m»F II H U p££ [kria] [kiria] 

few ?PH fw 3?> WI II Hftr »T^ 3 1 oT [birtha] 

traafy ii fa?> fa>rafi fe?> tfo fw fwfe 11 h y p£tf [britha] 

frIH ydH'ft! fit ffiftl iPHf II H y W [parsad] 
fan yilTfe H^W frraoT oP^t II H y W [prasad] 
fetf H3T3 ggfK fwfw II H ^ PP [parm] 


frrfft ffH WW H^ftT irfWF II H *\ PP [pram] 

H3^ra t fy^frw faftft rran tfrra 11 h ^ sx: [sarb] 

HH H^Pd" 3HW dH H3 ^ft H¥ tTH II H U ^33 [srab] 

There are four forms of \TS^, the reader has to follow all these variations. 

»Bfe WUfe WS^ UWfi\ H yf fofe ft »rt II H U PP [paranl] 

ftftof Hoffe 3^ 3H IPftf fel fHftr ^ H yftt II H tf PPO [pranl] 

arayfk cVH Fn-rfe y^st ^ ufe wfe\ ii h u pp [parani] 

^d 7 ¥W ft iJ^t yst »rff U§ ofd^d 7 II H U pp [pranl] 

T^^W^ iJ^t yst »rf U§ a(&W ll yd 7 Hfddld oraf ft ftfW fafe ft^ HH tfew II 

iran d^fe hh yorafrr g^ 3¥ fw twi o?§fe ii ort ftftor fH uut wz\ wfa H^ft wu^t 
3fe ii 3 ii ^ft uut tfe t ^H'fdw 1 ftisr fay m ym wftiw? ii yfe owfe Hftr wfc»F 
siiH'fW fti3T nfefe wufe fe 1 ?? ii nfefe wufe w^ft iravft h yi fefe ft wt n H'UHdife 
faf t% ft ofor wMwul ii [HdHcSO'd fwfenr HWKt feor fftHtr ft wt ftiwft ii 

o(U FPftoT yst 3lH iJUt fey Htl WT wftlWft II 3 II eft uut tfe t ^H'fW fti3* fcft 

ftt npfw Hfe ii arayftr fty mpfo f ^iH'fd^r ft^ 3d 7 ed^ra 3wt ufe ii ajdyftf mj 
Hipfo ire 1 ^ m?3 hu pp 

Cluster with [ r ] and syllable division 

In the following examples the cluster with [ r ] is invariably simplified. Instead of 
[a'mrif], we have [am'rif]; instead of [du'krit], [su'krit], [sa'mrath], the usual rendering 
by even the most professional granthis is [duk'rit], [suk'rit], [sam'rath]. 


Ufe WffH? 153 1 MmF ufe gife»F tfl§ II H 8 ^3 [a'mrit] 

Hfew JTOB fHfKfe #5" II H ^ 3 [si'mrit] 

fiffyfe H T HB Ufe^ HfVMllH^ «W8 [si'mrit] 

H3" HUH?) »r£ ^fH W II H U ^tltf [su'prasan] 

efgT5 HfgTH H^ TOTf HdlM'£' II H y m [du'krit] [su'krit] 

HtT fsmj lffe»fT gr^ gpfe II HH ft+fcttF M U3t wfe II H U =\t:tf [bi'sram] 

H^r ^ UJ3 ^fefe Ht* ofrfenr oftH fWH 1 II H <* <WU [mu'dra] 

uh Hajftr fey ij^jfe fH^rftmr ii h «\ pp^ [sa'greh] 

fH oft tTOt 3 1 oft oF3t W of§ H'UHdlfd fyjj'H 1 II WJ POt: [bi'swas] 
H HHH fetT ufe ft B 1 ^ II oTHfo 330 [sa'mrath] 

The presence or absence of the marker of nasalisation, tippi, is a frequent 
variation that makes the correct articulation of the text an extremely difficult task. 
Before a nasal consonant, the marker of nasalisation is redundant, the marker here could 
be to note the intonational stress on the syllable to follow the rhythm of the musical 

q?> % frlH 1 mWSSqSWH tWft fafc 3Jf fffenr wfs II H 8 3^0 
[tan tan] [tan tan] [tan tan] 

tf?> ET?> 3M (WJof Wi cfo 1 f^B" fi-ffow 3ct Hfe H3T H3TC} II H 8 °[£? [tan tan] 


ET?> TJ§ f& H£W HPddjy oftfH3Uf^uf^?Wfrflruf^Hy iJ^W II H 8 <*££ [tan tan] 

U§H iaj 3Tfw Htf iffenr q$ % 3Jf ufe ^fw ll H 8 ^PP [tan tan] 

offo H^ »M y?> ?3* d II offe &Qd y?> ^3* 3" II H 8 W [pun] [pun] 

?TOoT £§ ?FH 13§ H?> ttfefe 3J3" irawt V^fettF ll H 3 ^PO [man] 

Uf W^\ tftf ^t ^H JVK Hfe ^H'^fe^F II H 3 ^PO [man] 
ftF H^ H?> Hfo HHW II H 3 ^PO [man] with additional [u] 

fefc Hfe &\s\ H¥ »T^ rFSt II H 3 ^PO [man] with additional [i] 

Uf ^Ut tfl§ ^t 3tfw 313 3F€fewr II [gobld] 

aTfa? Urfw o^ fe? ^3t 3ffw 313 irafe Hi'^few II H 3 •p** [gobid] [gobid] [gobid] 

MS Pdd^Q ddi'dPlW fu of^W fydlH'd II U313 3$ Wl^U 3jftfe JTOcT jfe H3^ II «\ II 
U§3t II ^W tt& ofHff 3J^ WW II qfc qfc §»F fcfi HH3T H^W II B^ ^3 €U fefa ffk 
»Ffe§ II 3St fgOF 3H S3H?) lFfe§ II U 1 ^ few fdrtPHG H3" ^»F II H'UHPdl H?> fcdHW 
^»F II ftfe PdH'dl £oT P^H^d' II ftW ftT»M Mffl?> frRT $3* II PP II Hfe II S'Ht Htew H?> 

Htft g? atfw 3j?^ wfs ii >M feuiF ora^ m jtoot b^ sr^fe ii h y PU8 
[go/ubld] [gobid] 

gift? 3Ffe»r Fra jwfenr gst y^?^ ww ii 3fk h 7 ?? hu f%sra H3T$ uf t nfc ^Iw ii 
fac-^rfe ?toot few 1st H5 1 ufe ufe ftmre^ ii 3 ii efo ^rrfti wjuh ^h aw ii uife 

Uffe ufe gtftf 3FH d^H II 3lf%^ 3FH H^ fWH »OTH »rafaf f^ 1 II H U UPt 
[gobid] [gobid] [govid] 

On page 173 we have diPst: 1 six times and affetT three times. On page 174 diPst; 1 
appears sixteen times and dlPet! 1 six times. For even an approximately correct 
pronunciation, one has to read the text very slowly and very carefully. 


3?> huh yd'fdiw 1 At ulf^ ufo h^u m &mz\ fftf 11 fe fw fnfo irfwr At alfe^ 

Ad 1 ufu Hf HH3 M fflf II ufu Wfe fHfo»F Hdlrlkrt At gtf^ H Hfa fed'il M rftf 
II P II H HJ5U fe Ad 7 ufu Uf Hfl3 H Hfo 3fc WV Mdl'^W fflf II uf ufu ft Hoff fH?> 

^ At yten h nfefu fnuu ufu w^r fflf 11 ufu uiw Au 1 Hfi^ fiiwu 1 uju A$ Au 1 
m rite'«W fflf 11 At nfo sfc wr yuT»r At gtf^ ufu Mmp nfo ^tn^r tflf 11 
3 ii ^ At atflt^ ^t At fifwfw uf 3g feefewu ne ^t fftf 11 At nfo sfc tfy 

fHUH oT At 3lf^T uf^ ytft gry ^j^r^t tftf II Hfddjd f%H3 Afo At gtf^r Ufu H$ orfu 
UH'Ut fflf II ufu ftH ^fw orfu irfw At glf^ Hft ftW HUfe 3H^t fflf II 8 II 3 II 

ptf ii £? ii aif^t h 1 ? huw 8 ii unt At gtfW^ ufft At fy^Ffunr ufu yj" Au 1 uht fftf 11 
ufu wh on?> firfe^ 1 At 3uW gfe »n£f gtut ynt rftf ii ufu »ry h^ uj3 fure* j^ 
afft?^ »p0 uhTw 1 tuft fflf 11 ufu gfrs ?* fTsst At afft?^ »ry nfeara fM fflf 11 
«\ 11 wO frare fu 1 ^ 1 At gtf^r ^fe »rflr 3t hu uuft fflf 11 tav tar turfed At 
utf^r fefe ftaift feufn &ur &uft fflf 11 wO frare fyfe^ 1 At 3mW ufu s^ #t h^ 
Haft rflf 11 ^aiH 1 (¥H wru u At gtff^ ufu era 1 Agrfn ufu uaft fftf h p h ufu »p0 

3UTfe oWfe**' At Ulfif^ ufu 331^ fiU Hfo yut fflf II »p0 Hfo Hfo <^ddtf' At Blf^ 
df% dfo»F ("Kft ftt rftf II Ufe nfefe gruf^ wflr t At 3^%^ ufe wflr dfw 1 33yut 

fftf 11 ufe W3H d^y iJHrfenr At if^T ^ %^ »rflr uftt rftf 11 3 11 ufe nBfe ?w 
yfl t At atf^r ufd - »rfu ^rr^ fef ^# rftf 11 ufe nBfe <th fiw 1 ^ t At atf^ 

lid" HWt Ufe yf 3Prt rflf II W} Hdfe U^'fet! 1 At gtffe 1 ufe ^13 H?T d^y Wrt «U>8 

One of the most frequent words, [anad], has similarly several forms, with or without 
nasalisation, with or without a long vowel. 

WTC Htf t^^ Ufd" 6W HSH fsf3W H^W Htd 7 II H y P08 [anad] 

Htf HUH »T^ fHHH II H U P^O [anad] 

>M?)^ fa?^ #H 3H^ 3H ^t H fe 7 fftf II H U ^OO [anad] 

HUH ftTW?ft t urfu H5 1 »I^ II H U PP3 [anad] 


On pages 457 and 458 we have >XfttJ once, »FfttJ twice, and ttffttJ thrice : 

3U ydlcJ'fbtf 1 II yfe" wfU ftt£ H>ffe HUftT H^fe 3UB oFUH H^U^F II »ITO ufetlHHU 7 
H3TW HUH ftf r^H'fd^F II UH3oFU yUFH UU fcH ^ 3U f^HcJ'fe^r II ftft? ufettfu UUS 

hu 3urfe ^sw ufu fautr nrflr ^vfw ii 8 ii 3 ii £ ii ww hujf ti h feu H3ft hu^t hu 

ft WW$ II fF t fujfu ufu ?FU H H^ ut U*?£ II nffewft »ff%UI3 H Uf H^ ft^Sft fftU>W 

ii ftu ffu He 1 u§fu ftw ^u fen yuft He h^ ii tpftufe mfe Hfe w % fy»r ytfe 
ytey ww$ ii ftft? ^trt aju sufft frt feu H3ft hu^t hu ft w&* ii «\ ii rF off u^ 

33^ 3 1 ot >M75f UJ^r || gipf^ h 7 ftfa H3 1 yfe S^ II >FS HU? offWFS ufu HH HfUT 

huh?> h yf ii huh fnfa ft? fftftr fe? farfu ftut f?F Hf off ii Hyu Hftt fiiufu >Fftt 
feu hu^t ^ of h^ ii ftft? ^tnt m nufft frt fF ot ^h ^s 1 ! ^ it wre ui^ ii p ii 

»F§ Htft fe tpfH H? 1 WUft^f II tftH§ UUS tftpfu »FU fewuftw II 3ftT »Fy fnt H^y 
»Fy ftU H'i'ylm II HUfe 3TUtH >Ffft fttH ofU H Hy iFHtw II offu WK ^7% 3ftT f^Ht 
ofU Hfe feft ufe tFUftw II ftft? ^tft 3JU HUfft fF§ »F§ Htft fe tpfH H^ 1 WUFW II 
3 II W it HHHfof 5^T ft? H^ 1 wfe»F II 3 1 oft yUft »FH faft H'UHdJ lFfe»F II H'UHfdl 
ufu it ufUT 3tfw fHHUS wfui»F II 3UH HU feoFU frF H3TW feftfa fe»Fful»F II Hfft 
H% HUH H^f f^ »(fte H3TW d]S 3Ffe»F II ftft? ^F§ 3JU gufc H^ W t HH^fof 
^^T fH H^ 1 wfe»F II 8 II 8 II P II nFHf HUW U || HR^ II ufe ufu ?FH fP4fe»F ofg ft 
oft HHoFW II ?Fftof Hft 3ft Htft Ufe >>© fHt 3P-FW II °[ II 53 II fw?5§ H3ft it H^T H?U 
§CFfu ^U II faftf ofuf ofUHfeufuufu?FH^U II ufu?FH }F3Ft BU^ W^rf H>ft 

fenFarf hh sfe»F ii of3f ft q^f Hufe tF?§ ora^ h m offu HfenF ii hh^h nrere 

WFU fftUHW HSU HWHt faftf ^U II ofU Hfe FFftof U^ft H'f W^H HUS fft^fu ^U II 
*\ II WJUnit Hfeutft fftUdJft >X?F§ ftfe II Hft offtU aWUtft fwmJS HU oftf II Hff ^UH 
ofUH »RJ HHH 7 HUS utfe ft >>F^ II sfftS 7 fafte >XftU H^WF nfftTWft^ fit[3^ II 
ftfH H^ft ^t H|»F feft fftU 1 ^ HfUT Hfe II fafttfe ?Fftof WH M HUfe H'f U^ ftfe 
II P II 3UH HftH ntftof Hof3 HU 1 Hft II Wtffe ufu§ feu HfUT Htft #UT Hft II WH3 ^U 

nraift? »Ffe§ w y^HU cFfe§ h nra fe n 1 ^ y^ yu'ut huh Htr ufu ?Ffe§ ii urtfftu^ 

tf§" flfWU H? ^ off ft U»F Uft II HtT HUH »Ffte ?Fftof foftF §ut 3U ^fft II 3 II ftH 
W3\o( §CFU 5UI3U HH 1 of§ft II Hft otft tfUoFU ufu ufu HH HftU H^ft II Hfft H^ft Hftt 



Hfc Hd^ JW f£ 3tf%^ 3$ WiH Hd^ H% fafc dT^ II H V) m [govid] 

v}h 6di0d1 irfe dlyfy atfw h?> flfw tfl§ ll H V) t«* [gobld] 

fHU 5d?> ^fenr atf^? ydi^'r«»F 11 [govid] 

vrai£ djvra ulfw ww? H'UHfdi itrfewr II H y 8£o [gobld] 

»r0 fc wy trfe h?> fcd*ra ut ara iraet ^tef 11 h 3 rz€ [wicar] 

W TOft tpfe gfe't II H «\ PP3 [bicare] 

foTHf%y W^IS d'<!£d'd' II H 3 TP [kilwikh] 
tffiH ffiW ot fcWfytr rPlfo II H VI ^08 [kilbikh] 
^sPdil ftw dW II H 8 V3 [wadpagi] 

fcdTW ?tfw m\ aS^gfl fcdTW ?TfK HU^fenr II H 3 P 1 ^ [badpagl] 

H U¥ oft ufe ofgr jftvf wfe fedf fHH Hit fed'dil II «\ II [wiragl] 

vju¥ dTdW >fe HH vrai^ ffe§ vravf dfrloT fgigft ll H vj po8 [beragl] 

iWTfc U^ VTd" ?TF HW ^H ^f rFfe II H «\ W [wasa] 

otfoTO U^ 1 Wffe W HuftT HW ^te 1 ! II H ^ W [basa] 

td" fedTT ft^ feu H?^ 3 II H vj pvjtf [wer wirod] 

td" fadTT cPH #VT Hd" II H vj p£p [ber birod] 

f%S H^ ft? tfc?t ("jrfe W5^ fTHt tffiH dT^fe II H 3 tP [win] 


W3H £f ytfrtf fo> HPddld f? ft wf? II H 3 tit: [bin] 
U3" ttl fc(VHl Hft Hftr $y ll H U <tff O [awinasl] 
§g tt fftofl ^fe»f II H U Po£ [abinasl] 

f%nw yfs f%H>f? y^st n ferore »rar?>t y^ftr f%s^i 11 h ^ sis [wismad] 

fHHHft fHHH ^ feH>re ll H y Ptzy [bismad] 

It is interesting to note that throughout Sukhmani of Guru Arjan, [b] dominates : 
ffo fagtT oPH #H HU II p£p [ber birod] 

■8BW ot ftj<r ^fefe SH II P^P [balua] 

£oT BH3 - oFufc fnyfe 31^t II P£t [bast] 

ws yte ggf w^e fwfrr ii p£t: [barte] 

fi-rfw oPH fy fycW'tt ll p£t: [bikral] 

Hfy - ^ ot HH UHft Wfi ll PPO [bakhane] 

yf Bfw ^ 67HW faaPH II PP 1 ^ [bigas] 
H^ oft HftjH 1 B^ft d7§?> yvft II PP 1 ^ [barne] 

mf iTO JTO -SS^\ II PP 1 ^ [badal] 

H^ it HfoT HftU^ t?> II PP°l [ben] 



l^^UK 7=nT f^e H^ II PPP 


WU oft HftjH 1 ite 7i fPftftl II ^3T Hftfa 3^ HfaWjfa II PPP [bed] [bakhianeh] 

gUK ftlWftt oF H¥ i^Hnj II PP3 

gUK ftlW?>t ira?> iratT fytl'd 1 II PP3 

»rflr oft ymm at^t 11 ppp 

orau fife fw ffclQd ' d II PPP 

orau ufe w H3 ^ff ii ppp 

Uffe Uffe H?ft H^ ginst II PPtf 

fe ct fifecT ct§ hu 1 fepgr II PtlO 

?^oT fey?) ?> wff otfe ii Pt:^ 

wfe ollddrt o^W gin?) II Pt:^ 

ftTH ?> foOF oraftl y^si'dl II PtlP 

nt PdcS ' Hl uf h?^ Hftr ^tr ii Pt:P 

HW Hfe Hfe U¥ goBT II PtlU 

fHfttfH hto ite sfat ll Ptzt: 


SRJH faT»F?>t oF 5UH y^sl'dll IF&W II PP3 [badpagi] 











[bed blcare] 


ffiW WiH ot fotwfer Wfu II 3ttf [kilbikh] 

ufe dTJ iff few otfe II Ptztf [birla] 

nfor hu^ h nrt ?* stfe 11 h fg^st 3 1 faf ytfe 11 ^»r ot fara 3tefe aft n W5U otw 
wfsw tfar dH ii fer offo h^ wrfu yntfe 11 oro ?* »rt y^ ^tfe 11 ifo fagn cm fn hu 
ii f^ fgora HU 7 fe P^P 

H^ ot Hftl ft fEKW fP# II i^d^RJH WU fee 3H II ?TOof fqf H^ Hfc dH II £ II H^ ot 
HftT Hfif ufe 7T# II H'DHTdl ufe ot tt ^Ff II H^ ot H^T cT HcT 3 f^Tlt II H'UHfdl HdW 

(V>Hdd ii h^ it nfor wif yi Hte 7 ii h 1 ^ it nfor uffe uffe ^te 7 ii H'UHfdi 3£ »rftmrof^t II 

H'UHfdl 3Tfe 3^t UK^t II H^ it H^T fat H% d^T II M5of H^ §£ HR3T II P II FTP" oft 

("TOof STUH ftlW?>t oF ?Klt fe>TT II *-l II Mf fd\W&\ 3UK oF ^ II 3UK fawft £of jqfOT 
^ II gUH ftlWftt it Ufe »fftfe II SRJH ftlWftt oT fcdTW >fe II 3UH ftlWftt frlH oft yf 

»rflr ii sjuh ftiwft of g^ iran'y ii srjh ftiw?ft of sdrj y^'dd wz\w pps 

fe oT fiw d^tT 3 ul?> II fe or fiw 5tfi»r W Sfe II fe ot fft5of off Hd^ #BT II H3" ot 

fiw off hu 1 fcmar Ptzo 

ftftof fwi§ 7) wff otfe II ^ II fHHfe Hft Hfa offo 0>d°o!'d II offo H?> P3 Hfe ffclQd ' d 

fRW fiftH ot fewfetr frftr ii nrflr mra nreu 1 ?w fw 1 ^ ii h?53 ofu^ ^us mfe i^^u ii 

W3 f^ Hfe Uf^ ot (Vf II HUftT H^fe ?TOof 3H5 3Ff II ^ II 3H5 3P^^ M OddPH % II 

fa^fn frfe ufn ft¥ tw ii uftr nff^? h^ w (Vfe ptztf 

y^" oft feHfe HU 1 W Ufe II Ufe dH l^t fedW otfe II ft^ BTftf^F ^ W5 felJH 1 ^ II yd?? 

yd^r ?jut iw^ ii g^d - ^t $h dH d^ftr ii fijn w§ hht it h^t ii u3 Hdfe w hf fewftr 


WffooT d^H #3T Hfe»PSt II ufe d* ?W oft 67^ Hfe WE\ II SU #R?7 o!W Hdfe II dTKV fW^t 

ufe ufe ?fe ii ^fit h otdTft h^ Ti&is ii fadt sh y^ dra >fe 11 H'UHTdi m tfr fo^H 11 

Hd¥ gtf M56T Ud^FH II t || PO II Hfi? II Hd3fi5 f6ddJ6 fadcCd Hft HHTTt wfU II »n^ 

dfn^r (W>or wH ut fefe Frflr 11 *\ 11 WH£*ret n hh Wonf feu ots ?> feH^s 1 11 inv ifo 3B 
otu ^ u^ ii fra tput mi?* h?> HHitr 11 sa fto to feH nfor ooffe 11 rra fen or gg?j 

feu?> ?> fRJ^ II 3H Ud*f HdT 5TU fcmfa fe»R43 Ptfo 

It is also interesting to note that just a few pages later, from 317 to 323, the use of [w] 
in the compositions of Guru Arjan, is more frequent. Obviously, it is a case of two 
different linguistic registers. 

tf oraf?> (V>dld ?rtfi tefk fiwfe ire£ II 3V [wer] 

djdfetr nfefe nfeara ?u§ h fiw ?> fit h dra wft wt ii 3«u> [warte] 

ftT f%? Hfddld ot H?> H^ oTH dTd^ HtfeH^WiP? II 3 V [win] 

§ HBT Hrftm »ffe ?3T Tjfa ^^ f ^5 ?§ II 3V [wada] [wad wade] 

Ufa <7H ?orat JTOoF ^ste ' d l l U^f II 3^ [wadpagl] 

33Tfe ?gfi 3d 7 fedtT t tjftr tjfar ^ddt! 1 II 3<tff [wachal] [wartada] 

tt\W cfW ^fenr^F (WJcT H% ^fi-B" II 3^ [wadiala] 

fedU feg^r q^t faf M56T HUH d?fo II 3^tf [wichora] 

ftW H^H fdld'fH ?> f%Ht ufe (Wf nfe % || 3<^tf [wisre] 

M56T (Vfe P^H'Tdm Htf fo^UT ufe II 330 [wisarie] 

M56T Hfe ¥ferfw Hte 7 Ufd" oT <7§ II 3PO [wlcaria] 

% ?> Ufit tfHH ?tffi fife Hfe f%3j3 II 33^ [wigute] 

fHH djf #3 <W>c7 T ' feH Hfe ^fe»T Hfe II 33^ [wasia] 


3FWt fw fecF? M56T TJS\ f%fSl»F II 33^ [wikar] [wihunla] 
fcTBfof H% fWH ufc fHHdH atf% II 3P^ [kilwikh] 
0>dtJM ^ Hdlw % H3" f^STT II 33^ [winas] 
H'tlHdl faft iffenr HSt •t&sf'dl II 3PP [wadpage] 

#^ foW dTdfa FF ^3T gfe Ht> II H H 1 ^ fefc U'dddfH H fo?H fi Ht* II t§ dTdfo 0>dld 
?rfo crafK fiWFfe iJUt!' II HHHfe Hd^fw ft fedfa 3#£ II iff H^f offe»F feH ^W 
H6T^ II 3°l II HfidT H§ U || gjd - ?TOoT ufe ?FH fed'fiW ^5 UJ33 HHdlJ II yf H5 1 

ajufmr «fefe Hfeajf ?gf h fmr £ £§ h ara ynt »rt ii Hfedjd wt h oFd - ofH^fc h 

HU ofH^ftl ajdfatF dft UFff HU 1 W?S l^ II f%S Hfddjd ot UofH ftT ajdfatF ITHU; oTH 

old 'fern 1 ^ fen aidfrry fefe £fe ?? »rt ii ara Hfddjd wf or ntf wfe urt fen wff 
ajdfay ot^ drift ii fw 53ft »rt 53ft ffe frfe fen 3# arafay yfo ^ »rt 11 sruy ^te 1 ! 
mw »rftr HS't 11 far f%5 Hfedjd ot m h£ dry ofd^ h t% hu 1 sy i^t 11 p 11 yf^t 11 f 
hu 1 Hrftm nffe ^^ sftr H^f f ws *zi 3V 

faRT q?> Hf Uf%3 ufe ufe ot 31^ 3P^f II Ufe ?FH ^n^t ?TOoT ^sJ'dll U^f II P II uf^t 
II H3g^H§Wro§^ ^W II f HF Hftl ^ slddt! 1 HF >fftl HHW 3«\t 

u^ H^d - yrfl»r 3ut hu f w^fu Ms 11 t^for oflw ^fe»rsi»F ?^ot h% 
afw? 11 3 11 yfst 11 ufo g?> Hut din t fe^ f%g# fth 1 11 fen vftnifs sf'fedd fan £fe 

fTO II H?> 3?^ ^fefe HffWF Ufe d^T tW d^H 7 II H'UHTdl 313 ^FfenF H% #bRT tPH 1 
II ?TOof H^t tftf%MT frTfo fe? qS'H 1 II ^ II ITOoT HS H II wdfoF HU^^F 7W13W >XoT 
^fe II fadTT f^S3T qst fH§ M56T HUH 3ffe II «\ II H§ JJ II f^TT 1 ^ Hfo 3T^ Hfe % ?j 

Horftj yfe 11 tytr u^ wh 3 fnf 3HoTd" fufe gfe 11 P 11 uf^t 11 m fiw^ yf §5 t 
wrfewft Hfe»r 11 nfe nfe HuTnffe yfunr uife uife ufe ^fenr 11 f^ ??te h§" feor hh^ 

ofe UH^t gfeWF II Hte HtF H3 gftlU H% feH # Hfe»F II 3fH ?TO^ £t frIH ?TH fefc 

ufd" udj Hfenr 11 p 11 h&ot hs y 11 fkv h^h fdid'fH ?5 f%Ht ufu 7m >rf?> 7% 11 x% frr 

HSt FTOoF ira?) H^t jfe II 3^ 


ftst ftf%U tfl»lt ^H 1 BUfife II foR5f%tr h% fen ufc faira^ atfWe II ui% HW H^ 
efw wM ara7% 11 h^w g»re nfk fefcwr ui% Hfc ^w 11 fawfe ?toot vg>lnt 

frrf?> fc3t fife II ^8 II HftoT H§ VJ II ^HTOftHtrFWoftH^H trfe II fenftj VB'Vffe 

?^ofT fiqn £ fofw »rfe 11 «ui hi u n hs^ ?wfek?fH# wrfu 11 fire tpff 
h?> fevelw ?^or HTfim ^fe ii 3 ii u§37 ii wu 1 ?rar Hftr ft vi^ftr fricf ufe vt?> u#r n 

tB^F ^§ ft rPSctf n# St »FH II 0>dtJM £c? H^fW % H3" f^S'H II Vf^RJH frIH f%Tlt 
feH faUH 1 HTT II drfo Wfs tfl? ufw <TOoT sfo rPH 33^ 


H3TW W& Hfil Wffrp ^t II H V| p££ [banl] 

3M few 1 ^ Mffrp M H'St II H VI 33tf [banl] 

Mffrp ^fl 3H?T e^ II H vj 3tfv| [banl] 

dldy'il Htft W&tT 3P# II H vj 3tf £ [gurbanl] 

^ftf ^U foddJcS <W<Vb|' II H vj 3V|tf [nirgun] 

Hftj f(Sddl4 off yi% ofM Sfenr II H V| «\t3 [nirgun] 

wfU >X^vjt HsddlA UUH 7 II H vj 3tP [nirgun] 

H33I3 fAddli H 1 ^ <V§ II H vj 3tP [sargun] [nirgun] 

HW HW HUlw Hl% fHVlH 1 ^ Hf 9^7) WWt tfl§ II H vj =\o£ [caran] 

feH ggs Vftrat H §t H^ftl B 1 ^ II H vj ^CQ [caran] 


Between pages 187 and 203 33?> appears thirteen times, and 335 fifteen times. 
3J3 ot 335 fufo A3 >PH II HU ^tzP 

335 35 313 dft yftf W3ft II H U ^tzp 

feH t£ H^ ot 33?) II H JJ ^tztf 

33?) oTHW W3 T fa sidled 1 II H U =\tltf 

33?) 5W ot H T 3f3T CF^f II H U ^tf O 

335 oTHW 5W ffe EFfe II H ^ ^tf O 

3J3 ot 335 f33§ ^T^fe II H U °ltf O 

33?) of^W f33 >fef3 CT3 II H U ^tf <\ 

$R3 %$ Wg ot 33?) II H U ^tf <=\ 

3f3 ot 3^ ot 335 ftWHoCdd II H U ^ 

673 ?TOoT 3* oft 335t W3J II H U °ltf °l 

335 y?fe 3Wf3 3f3 H T 3f3T II H U ^ 

3J3 ot 335 f33 ffe wfa II H U <tff 3 

f333 33?> oTHW y^ IF3 II HU <tff 3 

33?) oTHW f333 §3 IF3T II H U =\tf 3 


33?> o?HW oft 3M fell HU <\£ 8 

13 ot 33S ftre ffe vrfe ii h y *\£& 

335 5THW H?7 Hftr VI3%T II H U 'tff 8 

m ot 33?> h?> h^ ftiw?> 11 h y <tffy 
33?> othw frrf waft vftfe 11 h y <tff £ 
ufe ot 335 ftrat ffe vrfe 11 h y <tff £ 
ufe ot 335 fed Hftr ^ ii h y ^tf p 
h?> 35 Htew 335 ufe ^§ ii h y «vf ;> 
335 othw ftj33 Hftr fry 11 h y ^tf p 

rT?> 33?> oTHW faf fft TW II HH ^tft 
33?> 5THW v]h 3313t ¥© II H y ^tft 

ufe ot 335 ftrat otfe €? ii h y <^f t 

337) o?^W ftj33 3Tf3 ?TOoT H VI P03 

oTOH oT^T3 fo»P?5U $tft II H y °[pt [sianap] 

"shs frwsu nraro ^w 11 h y vt [sianap] 
fenrftr Hmw faw>vp- 3H vp3suh r<woed 11 h y eoy 


fenrftr mm fawreyr w uuz yf fpfy 11 h y 8oy 

fa?> fang?) fe?> tft> fw fwfe II H y p£tf [simran] 

W oT fHHUfe Htf 3^ II H y 3«P [simran] 

E^Hfe sf ' d l JItS Hfe ^ ?W Hfi3 »rt Hfc if II H 8 8tf 3 [pag'hln] 

faft E3H?> Hfddld H3 y^T ft y^W 3 5TOte frfH H 1 ^ II H 8 8tf 3 [pag'hln] 

iW^H 3313 ire?'?) II H y «=itztf [parwan] 

ufe oft W3\fs WW y^W II H y ^tztf [parwan] 

hir kl Bgiq jnmu prvwxu ] gur ikrpw qy nwmu vKwxu ] 3 ] khu 
nwnk so jnu prvwnu ] jw kY irdY vsY Bgvwnu m 5 18 9 

y?> wp?t ^yu re ^te 11 h y «\tp [pran] 

tfl»T \P3 ?TOoT 3ET WPf II H U «^tP [pran] 

jIA pRwx nwnk guru ADwru ] 4 ] 3 8 ] 107 ] gauVI mhlw 5 ] ry 
mn myry qUM qw kau Awih ] jw kY aUxw kChU nwih ] 1 ] hir sw 
pRIqmu kir mn mlq ] pRwn ADwru rwKhu sd clq m 5 187 

oT^?> 31$ H 35" t 3P^f II H U <\X:2 [gun] 

are yw fwi ftiwft ?toot Frara um ii h y «^tp [gun] 

kvn gunu jo quJu 1Y gwvau ] kvn bol pwrbRhm rlJwvau ] 1 ] 

rhwau ] kvn su pUjw qyrl 

krau ] kvn su ibiD ijqu Bvjl qrau ] 2 ] kvn qpu ijqu qpIAw 

hoie ] kvnu su nwmu 

haumY mlu Koie ] 3 ] gux pUjw igAwn iDAwn nwnk sgl Gwl ] 


ijs kir ikrpw siqguru 
imlY dieAwl m 5 187 

era?) cfd'^A ora^ % II H U PP£ [karan karawan] 

eras oJW yf ^ t fHU <^ut £fe II Wl PP£ [karan karan] 

krx kwrx pRBu eyku hY dUsr nwhl koie ] nwnk iqsu bilhwrxY 
jil Qil mhlAil soie ] 1 ] 

Astpdl ] krn krwvn krnY jogu ] jo iqsu BwvY soel hogu ] iKn 
mih Qwip auQwpnhwrw m 5 27 6 

Hf ofS §H oT §g dd&J'd II H U PPtf [karnehar] 

Wj£ efe? wfU ofdld'd II H U 3Ptf [karnehar] 

Awpy ricAw sB kY swiQ ] Awip kino Awpn ibsQwru ] sBu kCu 
aus kw Ehu krnYhwru ] aus qy iBMn khhu ikCu hoie ] Qwn 
Qnuqir eykY soie ] Apuny cilq Awip krxYhwr ] kauqk krY rMg 
Apwr ] mn mih Awip mn Apuny mwih ] nwnk klmiq khnu n jwie ] 
m 5 279 

ft ^WZ\ H W W7> II HU 'VZO 
yst t^t feu 3?> Sfc II HU HtO 

yst t^t feg 3^ Pu 1 ii gufu sufe fnrf w^ 1 ii yn ot&3 fdidHd or ^h 1 ii u?> ?> 

VSffi ^H c^ OT II «\ II c7^?> H faftr frl3 ^H 315 wfs II of^ H Hfe ffJ3 3% fsU W?S 
II *\ II ^Ff II ft WWZ\ ft W H^ II TTO oft ft fat HH^ II t^t <7Ut tfe Wf U 1 ^ II for 
^$& WoB HH 1 ^ II 3 II ft UWUW ft iflt sfu 1 II «ff>(3 JVH W7! offe off^ 1 II H U <\tO 

§?> oft ^5 sft tfl»f ?tfw II H 1 ! W3\ 3 y^f H3T II ftift HWHt >W^ ufal II 3 II fry SOT 

^f h^ $w ii Gran iran nrayf hf uh 1 ii ara? hu 3fir u^f %77 11 h y 3tf*\ 

[ren] [ren] 


HU 1 feftpflT nfa fe§ ffc fliftj- || h U 3tfU [ren] 

few tfe £u H^ 1 FTO§ II H y 3^ [ren] 

These are some of the examples of the numerous variations in the orthography of the 
Granth. They are culled from the first few hundred pages. It is obvious that the entire 
text of fourteen hundred and thirty pages must have hundreds of such differences. This 
phenomenon requires very urgent in-depth analysis by the most competent 
musicologists and linguists to guide the readers of this holiest of the holy Book of the 
Sikhs. This study will obviously be long and arduous. What matters most at this stage is 
that the readers, the granthis, must pay attention to these variations and concentrate on a 
very slow, word by word articulation. The absolutely correct pronunciation, [sud path], 
is the most sacred task of the readers in Sikh theology. When the same word is spelt 
with short or long, high or low vowel, a/a, i/I, u/u, u/o, i/e, e/e, e/eh, e/eh, with or 
without nasalisation, in the same utterance, and several times on the same page, the 
reader has to be very diligent, very slow and very careful. And when the scribe hesitates 
between u/o as in f»F^ , HWtF , diftit; , HUtT, 3R1W, the reader has no choice but to opt 


for one or the other vowel. Finally, it must be remembered that Punjabi is a tone 
language with three levels of high, mid and low. Each tonal contour is realised on two 
syllables. The onset of the tone may begin with the initial or the non-initial syllable. 
There are also stressed and non-stressed syllables. This disyllabic contour is highly 
complex. This has been almost completely ignored in modern Punjabi writing but it is 
duly noted in the orthography of the Granth as in %fs, «3fe, 3fe, ^fe. The ears of the 

scribes of the Granth were much better tuned to the rhythms of the musical 
compositions of Gurbani. 


In the second section is presented a detailed study of the language of Sukhmani of Guru 
Arjan with some of his other shorter compositions. The specific linguistic features are 
highlighted with bold letters. It is obvious that in Sukhmani, [b] and [n] dominate 
though there are occasional expressions with [w] and [n]. The same is true of other 
compositions of the same author where [w] and [n] are more frequent. This extreme 
admixture of different linguistic registers could be due to the discursive, theological or 


musical exigencies of the various ragas. Or it could simply be due to the different 
scribes and copyists. 

Finally, the text of Sukhmani is compared with that of Japuji of Guru Nnank, the 
inaugural composition of Guru Granth, composed almost a hundred years before the 
editing of the Granth. It is obvious that these two texts present two distinct linguistic 

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^ hwt iretw ii m feuy 1 ??h fawfrtf 11 m feuiF §■ w> st 11 nf 

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11 f A^ 1 Htr fzft A^ 1 At? 11 f A^ 1 utey 3K Hfar ut? 11 f Att ufe fff A^ 1 

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fw^US H^T (^of W^H 1 ^ II fmnj& U?> f6dU6 OftT H^ 1 II Htf fwtft 

fwufa ^ ii ^ ii Hrfew fa»ny3 gy iraortt 11 h? Hteftr w fe 3>ptt 
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tor »if tur ii fa»ry3 ufte ?re gfe tw ii fa»ry3 Ah huw HtuM 11 ife ^s 

fwWlJ& »fftl»M II 3 II fWU3 ofdK oft Uf ^W II fWjfe fdldHd fe»Rf^ 

§ew ii »nu^ fyQd'd fa»ny3 fezr t^fe 11 h^" fe fewus fe ufe tur ^3" 

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ur»rttt miw u ii fim ?>te u^ feRfe feora 11 h?^ h^ Hfe ffc ¥fe^ 11 

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ii 30 ii ttf ii urf^t amrM huw u ii w it ^ftr tn?> yttd'A 11 h 1 it t:fr hutw 

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fu fF of tddd'd II HUTtf F3B" W of ?FH WPf II H3H IwHl? U^T) H?>t II W 

oft hf 1 wife ujfe ■%& ii p ii fog fnms ftr i^ 1 ^ff 11 ftm frn-raB" hh fef ?> 

oft II ftTH fHH^ U3 Hot Ut II ftTH fHH33" f^ Wtt B% II 3 II H3" HF 1 off 
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>tff>f? s 1 ^ urayftr #$ n «ui nf trar h 1 ^ 1 w hu Hftr ^§ 11 Htew Hrfe m^ §■ 

IJ¥ fP§ II «\ II gTP§ II H3" UTFfe HU Ufa (T^ II H3" HH^ Ufa oflddfS UF§ II 
Tfe Ifflrfe HUTtf EtT fu$ II H3" UHrfe W> 3" g£ II 3 II H3 tofl|T ^ f>^ HU- 

m*y — -K — •«« 

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UTf^t UPX 1 ^ HU^ U II H'UHPdl Hflf§ ^T% II okw <7K Et§ Ujfe % II 3ftT 
»ffOT?> 5^ Prtdld II WG UU^ Utra 3J^ U^ II ^ II W Hfe fa?iHT EH3 
Pydl'(Sl II HH ^ Hfe»F Ufe HH of?)t II ^ II ^TPf II HUtT W »n^u fccr?) II 

^tfTKj^ ^ftr ^fe Itje 1 ?) ii Etr ^^^ fa?>H t ^^k ii »n^ h^ ^ offe o^k 

II 3 II Ot t^ Ht Hf »Tfir II HE 1 TT% 3 1 off H?j Hrflr II H% UHrfe ^fe§ 
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te ?fe II 5RT (WJof H 1 off % tofU^ II feH H?j oft hf y^?j uro 
II 8 II 33 II tf3 II UT§^t UT»rM HU75 7 U II TO 3fe twt ^H II H?> Hftl 


wit wz fa»n?> ii fH^ftr of^H Htft ufe guffi 11 w e 1 ^ 1 Hfeura ora^ 11 ^ 11 

H Htf^H 1 ftT <7K t^Pt II offo toT^U 1 f3H Hfaf ?HW% II 
=1 II ^TFf II faH Ufe Ufe»TO feH »TtU fiwt II H^ fotp?) 3[f ^ Iff II 

»rt fe^rfar ft43 »res w& 11 mr it nfar u^suh us^ 11 p ii w> §ufo u^ 

^ Ufe»Ttf II fl?> oft £oT £dT URPtf II ^oP fo^ £ot Hfc ^f II H^ fotT?) rf?> 

it ufo cvf ii 3 ii toih faf wz\\ utfe ii fc^HW orast H^t ^tfe ii urfe yt 

ftfc»F >>rfq»rgT || (TtjoT oT Uf >>fy^ »RI T ^ T II 8 II 38 II tf3 II wM\ UT»rM 
HUW U || ftTH Hfc ^H 3t fl?> Hfe II H 1 it of^K U^ufe ufe II tt % off 
^§ ?> fWU II >>ffH3" (TK left Ufa iTO II °l II UWUH U^H^ 
fcWZffi II m^ yt ^ feZT Hfe iretw II <\ II ^TFf II 0(55 dd'^d'd ufe»Ttf 

ii tfl»r ws hst$ ufeira ii »raTK »rara^ ttc 1 ^ofe 1 11 faHfo w? yt ura H3 7 

II 3 II H 1 oft ^ m% fotp?> II UF oft UtT 1 iretw >F?> II W oft 3UW ?> fa^nt 
t^fe II Tre 1 HU 1 Ufa ot 3J^ UTrfe II 3 II dTfo fa^U 1 U^ ^ofe^iTKt II Htf f?>cr?> 
Ufa »TC5tr H»THt || rft»f tfe M Hd£'*fl II ("TOoT (TH frft ^fe»P^t 

ii 8 ii pu ii tfa ii urfsr UT»rM huw u ii tflnr tpfe h 1 it f zph 
ii h frn-ra^ nRTH it (7H ii uf fofe »n£ Hf tw nrfe ii i h^ fwvrfu ufo it 

(Tfe II <\ II fe Ufa ^f dT^ of H 1 ?^ II Ufa PdHdd of^ Htf tWjftl II ^ II 
grpf ii frrf?> tnt ay crafe WH II W oft Hfe tft»f ira^FH II W oft gtfH ?> Ht 
itfe ii tafe fHHfe uf fcSd^Q ufe ii p ii »rs uu^ fHmz m cth ii nffer 

3teH HH?) feHfWJ II U^^UK oft tZ^Urftr II itfe oTOoT ftf?j Hftl t^fe t^ftr 

— — «* 

II 3 II ^HUH 1 ^ y^ 1 U'fdH'd II U5" ^bT TTO 1 %H^ II Ujfe 
yt ^ $ WB II (TTJbT OTJH HH^H II 8 II 3£ II tf U II Ulf^T W^t HU^ 
U II UT^ ydH'fti (TfH HcJ WUF II H?JH tl?JH of Hfe»F WW II >0fte UT^ f^t 
U3" g^ II yt UT^ oft HHfe If^t II <\ II U^ fH>ra3 ^Htf H% U 1 ^ II Uffe 

wfo Htr huh Tra 1 ^ 11 <\ 11 ^rrf 11 Hst iis 1 ^ 1 tti?jftr furfew 11 offe femi 1 
ufe »rfV fwfew ii wz ijbrfe wt^ offe »ri?> t ii ufo ufe oth 1 h^ 1 hu tw?) 7 

■^ — 

ii 3 ii H=r 3? »fftfg yesoti'd ii ufe ufe c^y tftnr w?> wrz 11 ww u^ 
urfe§ ufe ^fftrr ii E3^ 3t h^ it Trftr ii 3 ii Hftr tHzr h? hti?) ira^ 1 ^ 11 ufe 


^fe ii 8 ii pp ii ti ii urf^t gp^ huw u 11 urre y?>te uftr ddoew n 
feftr t^ftr Hrfenr Htra ii stw gwg ^k ut^ ?fe 11 tw u^r At ^t nte 
ii °i ii fog" $tffe oTurfe HH^st ii ^h (7K ufe >>rte H^st ii ^ ii grrf ii for 

of^ftT §t Wfu faora II frTHgH ^K <7ZJT HH H 1 ^ II ETCH ^fe ^ E3" ?> Hff II 
Hrfew HUT?) ?> ofgW Ht II 3 II Qlldfd »TtU 3t HTFf II ^K (7H HtV £doCd 

ii »rtu or>rf »f^^ T fu^H ii ^k (TH ftrat iratH ii 3 ii w t Hil £y fotp?> 

II HFt UW HU ^dl^'cS II »P?5 UU^ Ufa Ufa ai^ W§ II of^ (-TO5T ^j§ feg gfo 
FF§ II 8 II Ptz || tP II 

The distinctive features of the phonetics of the vocables of Sukhmani may be presented 
as follows : 

3J3£ HfddJdS dJdt^S ife 3T?>t TOTH ^ faup> fwO TWif 

fegijT f|ar fzzw fw ^h 1 ^ ^fEt^ iHftr ira^?> >»ry<VHl fort 

** •*, «* 

H3TW fsf»F HftT §3H forfe»F H3TW ^ HT7T >>fte i 1 ?)* TOTt PycW'tt 
fteWU for?) ^»F Mfc 33?) H3?> off?J of^T) 3tTW 3tfW 3tf¥^ 

H 1 ?) w> r6ddj<s H^ar?? faum % te tor? s^ fyti'd 1 yl-d'dfd 
faro tH3^ t^ft s^ fyOd'd y^'dil to$ fa^ar 

^/W 3RFW 3RTW ^ /^"JTO (TOcf UTft /^"TTO II US'?) fH»P7)U dl6d'H 


H3?7 foTKto ftoWn fwira - mn?> H^^st u^irst ar?>3Tfe 

ora?> otd'^A oi^oTO oid^d'd ofdld'd >X< , J^»^»fTO 

On the other hand, the phonetics of some of the other compositions of the same author 
analysed here, present the following distinctive features. Obviously, they represent two 
different linguistic registers. 

^ft f%sJ^t»F T& 3tfw Ul^r 3^ 31^ tfl^ 1 " ^ ^»F P^H'fd 
H^'did'd Hd'dlil fW^F Hdi'dldl fe f%H3T ^sl'dll TTO^t 3J^ 

H^HUTFU fe?> tfe 

t^Trast t^ fefenr Htre^s ora^o^ te ?z& »ngTq^T Qyid^o'd 

31§3t oft ^ HUTF U 


Hdi'«1 ^H q^t t^t IfSt Ugrfenr ^fe»PET»F f%S^ feH'dt) 333 
t^£d'd ^ffi WZ\ TTOSt f%3J§ f^H HH3H33 HUfe 0>dy'£ flfe 

f^di'H 1 h^ ?gt are fa»reu f%f# s^t ^fe»ret HUfe sra^ ^sf'dll 

^f fcftffetf dl£d'H ^tf^ oidld'd f%Ht U^t t^t S^t ^tPSt offe»P3 

It is interesting to note that the language of Japuji of Guru Nanak, the inaugural 
composition of Guru Granth, composed almost a hundred years before Sukhmani, 
operates at another linguistic register. As opposed to the domination of b/n of 
Sukhmani, there is invariably w/n in Japuji : 

ttfoTO H^fe >XH?)t M UT^ Ifflrfe II 


»ffe H? HUFfe Hf II ff 5t Hf (W^f UHT 3\ Hf II ^ II 
HtHfe?) U^Ht H HUt Wtf ^ II ft fU ?> U^Ht H 75^ dTF fe^ 3^ II 

ffw ftr ?> §3^t h ^V ytfor ^ ii huh frwstr w=r uftr 3 feor ?> ew 

(Tfe II fof^ Hf^Fd 1 UFPtf fef^ 3# ft IFfo II foffi-{ dtFFt ^75^ ("TOof 
fofw ?Ffo II ^ II UofHT U^fo ttFoFd" fofH 7) offu»F tFFt II fofHT U^fo tfl»f 

uoffK fat ^tonst ii uojHt fny ?>tf uoffK foftr ftr gtr iFstvxfd" 11 febw 

fofHT ^tfHTH fefof fofHT HE 1 ^stwfd" II fofH >>fefo Hf it wfo fofH ?> tfe 
II ("TOoT fofH H ft 3" U§H dlt ?> itfe II 3 II UF# it 3^ ut fofH H 1 ^ II UF# 
ot U% ^rf jfljre || UP# ot 313 ^fe»F5t»F W3 II UF# ot f%fe»F f%tjy ^far^ 

ii urt ot tfth oft 3^ ^zr ii upf ot rftw t fefo %u ii urt 

ot iTO feH Ufa II UF# ot tt UW 1 ZTUfo II ofH?F ofHT ?> »nt tfc II offe offe 
ofHT oT3T otfe otfe II £^ £ t£ Hfof IFfa II HUF Hdldfd tFUT tpfu" II fofHT 
fofH Stfi* d^ II (WJof f%3TH tUd^rf || 3 || ht^t flrfoj j^ j^rfe grfw gr§ 

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The distinctive phonetic features of Japuji may be presented as follows : 

HUH fw^lT tftf Ufa U febT ?j ut (Tfa II 
UoTHt U^fa rft»T Uoffa fat ^fe»P5t II 

UFtotn^uttoTHH^iiurtot wfs wz ?ftwz II 

urt ot 3j3 ^fanrstnr ura 11 urt ot f%fa»r f%try ^fera 

("TOoT f%3TH tuu^u II 

rfiftis %w hu (^ ^fenrut f%^^ ii 


UF^frtf HS^ Hfc ttffi ^f II 

H H f%Hfo 7) WZ\ II 

te 3^ fe <7fe 5^ || 

(TOoT foddlfe 1!^ oft dja^TdW 3J1 £ II 

Hfe^ Hftr HWd£ HE II 

Hfe>^ Tms frrfafe #u 11 

(■TOoT gUB 1 HU 1 f%3FH II 
oPUTfe oftfH ?> fetf^Pf II 

u^ ira^ 1 ^ *fo iran 1 ?? ii 

oWdfd of^ ofUT ^fe^f II 

»fm uran yftr #u ire 11 
wk 5UT3 ut^ ftrnp?) ^u ii 

^rfw ?> W^ £bT ^ II 
»P=raT ftw^ Hflf H^fe || 
te (Tt (TZft ot Hrf II 

te are oft§ gurfe ?> ufe ii 
frr u# ^y ira 7 ^ ii 

frT fotffc ^y 33^ II 

febr e fe fanp^ II 

^ Hrftra ^t (THt offe 1 H 1 oT ut II 

^tf 1 Ufe 3" fotftw $t ufe f%^H II 

>% ?> oraf £fe 7) >% II >% ?> %¥fe HSfe ?> >% II 

otfe»f 3133 ?Kjt ^f II 

wra cray wra eta 1 ^ ii wm hw »f>ra ira^ 11 
nrm wmfo »fyw ?>frre 11 »fyw °^y ^M f^H 1 ? 11 
»rtff\r y^ oraftr ^fa»re 11 
»rtfftr tu ire ira 1 ^ 11 
»rtff\r y^ oraftr ^fa»re 11 


33 di'^d'Q ii 

fe feH ut ^fe»ret ii 

fefc 3$lre^ II 
fetfi>Etw ii 

frPTUt f^H 1 ? II 

^UHT^te^ II 

offo offo tt (Hddid'd II 

% ?> ttefe HUfe ("nT % II 

fet HUfc ife ira^5 II FJE^t of^H lit tftWZ II 

33 14^3 lT5t #H3^ 33 ofr?J H3H II 

33t»r tret 33frr H'st 33 ire ?>fw n 

H^K tfe 3^ H'St fy II 

tt fear^ offe ^te^ ii 

The language of Sukhmani, as stated earlier, is dominated by [b] and [n], with a few 
variations of [w] and [n]. On the other hand, in other texts of the same author, [w] and 
[n] dominate with very rare variations of [b] and [n]. The phonetic register of Japuji 
seems to correspond well with other compositions. Guru Arjan was the Editor of Guru 
Granth with Bhai Gurdas as his Scribe. Both were highly euridite scholars. This is why 
this constant mixing of linguistic registers and these numerous orthographic variations 
are problematic. On the other hand, we must not forget that we are dealing here with the 
language of the sixteenth century, a language in transition, both formally and 
semiotically, and there can be several reasons for the complexity of the linguistic 
registers due to different levels of the religious discourse, due to the exigencies of the 
musical compositions, and maybe, due to different scribes and copyists. Whatever may 
be the logic behind all these highly intricate manoeuvres of linguistic and discursive 
formations, of theology and musicology, the fact remains that the formal aspect of 


Gurbani requires extremely meticulous study and attention. At this stage, we can draw 
two conclusions. Firstly, the tradition of memorizing the compositions is fraught with 
all kinds of complications. It is very difficult, if not outright impossible, to memorise 
even a very short text, even a single page, without making several articulatory mistakes. 
Secondly, the [sud path], the absolutely correct enunciation, the most sacred task in 
Sikh theological tradition, has to be very, very slow. One has to pause at every clause to 
be able to follow the phonetic contours of the ensuing utterance. This exercise must 
take several days, if not weeks, to complete the reading of the entire Granth, to maintain 
even the semblance of correct enunciation. The alternative is a sacrilege in every sense 
of the term. 

Harjeet Singh Gill 
Professor Emeritus 
Jawaharlal Nehru University 
New Delhi.